local attribute symbolDef :: (String, Integer);
symbolDef = ("a", 3);

Tuples in Silver are characterized by parentheses, with individual elements delimited by a comma “,”. They can contain an arbitrary number of elements, and while the elements of a tuple can be of any type (and need not all be of the same type), the number of elements in any given tuple is fixed. For example, a tuple of type (Boolean, String, Integer) cannot become a tuple of type (Boolean, String) or (String, Boolean, String, Integer).

The tuple type is written (a, b, ..., n), where a, b, and n are all types, for any finite number of types. Similarly, tuples are constructed with (c, d, ..., m), where c, d, and m are tuple elements, for any finite number of elements.


local attribute priorityError :: (Integer, String, String);
priorityError = (3, "Too high!", "Too low!");

Selector Syntax

Individual tuple elements may be accessed using the tuple selector syntax, which utilizes a dot “.” operator following the tuple expression and the position of the element we would like to access expressed as an integer constant. Tuple access indices begin at 1.


if priorityError.1 > 2
  then print("Error: " ++ priorityError.2, ioin)
  if priorityError.1 < 1
    then print("Error: " ++ priorityError.3, ioin)
  else print("No serious errors.", ioin);

Here, priorityError.1 = 3, priorityError.2 = "Too high!", and priorityError.3 = "Too low!".

Pattern Matching

Silver supports pattern matching on tuples. Wildcards “_” may be used in place of the tuple itself, or in place of individual tuple elements, as follows:


case tuple of
  | ("zero", "zero", "one") -> "one"
  | (_, "one", "zero") -> "I arbitrarily don't like this input"
  | ("zero", "one", "one") -> "three"
  | _ -> "I don't like this either." 

Inductive Implementation

Tuples are implemented inductively using the construction of ordered pairs, e.g. we forward a tuple (a, b, c, d) to Pair<a Pair<b Pair<c d>>>. This means that the following examples are equivalent:

("I", ("am", "a", (5, "tuple"))) = ("I", "am", "a", 5, "tuple")

And these both represent the following construction of nested pairs

pair("I", pair("am", pair("a", pair(5, "tuple"))))

In contrast, the 3-tuple

(("I'm", "not"), ("a", 5), "tuple")


pair(pair("I'm", "not"), pair(pair("a", 5), "tuple"))

Consequences for element access

Because tuples forward to nested pairs, elements may also be accessed using the fst and snd attributes that occur on Pair, although this syntax may be less immediately intuitive. For example, the priorityError tuple defined above would have the following element accesses via fst and snd attributes:

priorityError.fst = 3
priorityError.snd = ("Too high!", "Too low!")
priorityError.snd.fst = "Too high!"
priorityError.snd.snd = "Too low!"

The tuple selector syntax described above is thus recommended for tuples with more than 2 elements.

See also

Up to date information about this data structure can be found in extension/tuple.